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Health Education

Reflections OB GYN / Health Education (Page 2)

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

What are pelvic inflammatory diseases? Pelvic inflammatory diseases are infections of the upper reproductive organs, such as the ovaries, the uterus and the Fallopian tubes. In the United States alone, more than one million women are affected by pelvic inflammatory diseases every year. More than 100,000 of these women become infertile every year. Pelvic inflammatory diseases are caused when germs move upward from the vagina and cervix. Most cases stem from sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia infection. How are pelvic inflammatory diseases diagnosed? Pelvic inflammatory diseases can be difficult to diagnose. The affected organs are not easy to examine, and symptoms may be similar to those of other conditions. To determine if you have a pelvic inflammatory disease, Dr. Sargent may conduct one or more of...


What’s all this fuss about HPV?

HPV infection is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Human papillomavirus is the name of a group of viruses that includes more than 100 different strains or types. Of these, approximately 30 different types of HPV infect the genital area and are spread primarily through any type of genital contact. Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms; therefore, most infected persons are unaware that they have HPV or if they transmitted the disease to their partner. Approximately 20 million people are currently infected with HPV. At least 50 percent of sexually active men and women acquire genital HPV infection at some point in their lives. All types of HPV can infect both men and women equally, however women...



What is endometriosis? The lining of the uterus is called the endometrium. Sometimes this tissue grows elsewhere in the body. This condition, called endometriosis, can cause pain that ranges from mild to severe. Left untreated, endometriosis can cause infertility. Endometriosis is a long-term condition, with symptoms that may occur off and on until menopause. What are the symptoms of endometriosis? Women who have endometriosis often show no symptoms. When there are symptoms, they can include: pelvic pain before or during the menstrual cycle pelvic pain during sex, bowel movements or urination menstrual bleeding more than once a month How is endometriosis diagnosed? To determine whether you have endometriosis, Dr. Sargent may conduct one or more of the following: pelvic pain questionnaire review (Pelvic Pain Assessment Form) physical and pelvic examinations ...



What is dysmenorrhea? More than half of menstruating women experience mild pain one or two days a month. This pain usually comes from the uterus, which is a muscle that can expand and contract. During some menstrual periods, the uterus contracts more strongly than usual, and this can cause a cramping pain. When the pain is severe enough to interfere with normal activity, it is called dysmenorrhea. In most cases, dysmenorrhea can be successfully treated with medications. Symptoms of dysmenorrhea can include: cramps or pain in the lower back or abdomen a pulling sensation in the inner thighs diarrhea vomiting dizziness nausea headache Dysmenorrhea may simply be related to strong uterine contractions during menstruation, or it may a sign of an underlying disorder such as fibroids (benign tumors...



What is adenomyosis, and what are the symptoms? Adenomyosis is a common benign (non-cancerous) condition of the uterus caused by growth and extension of the inner lining of the uterus (the endometrium) deep into the muscular middle layer of the uterus (the myometrium). It is sometimes referred to as “endometriosis of the uterus”. Characterized by menstrual pain, heavy menstrual flow and uterine enlargement, adenomyosis and fibroids present with similar symptoms and signs. This overlapping of symptoms often leads to difficulty in differentiating one condition from the other without the use of special testing such as ultrasound and MRI. Like endometriosis, the cause of adenomyosis is unknown. Symptoms of adenomyosis sometimes begin following cesarean section, tubal ligation, pregnancy termination and pregnancy. Adenomyosis affects about one in every 10...


Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a very common condition among women of any age. It can be caused by many factors. A wide range of treatments are used, depending on the reason for the uterine bleeding and your personal needs and conditions. The following types of uterine bleeding may be considered abnormal: bleeding after sex bleeding between periods bleeding after menopause spotting or heavy periods or menstrual bleeding for more days than usual What causes abnormal uterine bleeding? A woman’s periods may be irregular during different times of her life, including puberty, around the mid-30s, and just prior to menopause. Abnormal uterine bleeding can also be caused by or related to one or more the following: use of birth control pills or medications problems related to non-chemical birth...


Permanent Birth Control

If you’ve reached a point in your life when you no longer wish to have children, Dr. Sargent recommends a minimally invasive procedure 15 minute office procedure to occlude your tubes. Essure provides an effective system to do this. Essure Website What is Tubal Occlusion? With tubal occlusion, small flexible implants are placed through the body’s natural pathways (vagina, cervix, and uterus) into the Fallopian tubes. During the three months following the procedure, your body and the implants form a barrier that prevents sperm from reaching the ovaries. During this period of time, another form of birth control must be used. Three months after the procedure, Dr. Sargent will perform a test to confirm that the tubes are fully blocked. Most women are candidates for tubal occlusion, but sometimes...


Operative Hysteroscopy

What is hysteroscopy? Hysteroscopy is the inspection of the inside of the uterus using a thin, telescope-like device called a hysteroscope. This device is inserted into the uterus through the vagina and cervix. Hysteroscopy is often used to help with diagnosis or treatment of a uterine problem. As minor surgery, hysteroscopy may be conducted in an operating room or in Dr. Sargent’s office. In some cases, little or no anesthesia is needed. The procedure generally poses little risk. To allow for visibility, a passed through hysteroscope to expand the uterus, while a light is shined through the device to enable viewing of the inside of the uterus. For more complicated procedures, a laparoscope may be used at the same time to view the outside of the uterus. If...



What is laparoscopy? Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to look inside the abdomen and pelvis. A small cut is made in the abdominal wall, usually at the belly button, and a thin, fiber-optic telescope attached to a light source and video camera is passed through into the abdomen. This telescope, called a laparoscope, can be used to look at abdominal organs, take tissue samples (biopsies) and remove abnormal tissue. The images picked up by the laparoscope are displayed on a television monitor so the surgeon can see what is happening in real time. Laparoscopy is usually performed when the patient is under general anesthesia (unconscious). However, it can be performed with other types of anesthesia that permit the patient to remain awake. When is laparoscopy...



What is a hysterectomy? Deciding whether or not to have a hysterectomy, or surgical removal of the uterus, is a weighty and personal decision. Dr. Sargent can work with you to determine whether a hysterectomy is the best solution for your symptoms and conditions. If you're considering a hysterectomy, you're not alone. More than 600,000 hysterectomies are performed in the United States every year, and a third of all women in the United States can be expected to have a hysterectomy by age 60. Conditions that can be treated via hysterectomy include: certain types of pre-cancererous conditions and cancers of the uterus or ovaries severe endometriosis (improper growth of the uterine lining) improper growth or location of the placenta (postpartum treatment) genetic conditions predisposing to cancer Types of hysterectomy If...